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MR. John Gokongwei, Jr. - Philippine Entrepreneur

Subject: Mr. John's Commencement Address to the 2004 AdMU Graduating Class

Commencement Address

Ateneo de Manila University
March 27, 2004 By
John L. Gokongwei, Jr.

I wish I were one of you today, instead of a 77-year-old man, giving a 
speech you will probably forget when you wake up from your hangover 
tomorrow.

You may be surprised I feel this way. Many of you are feeling fearful 
and apprehensive about your future.

You are thinking that, perhaps, your Ateneo diploma will not mean a 
whole lot in the future in a country with too many problems. And you are 
probably right.

You are thinking that our country is slipping-no, sliding. Again, you 
may be right.

Twenty years ago, we were at par with countries like Thailand, 
Malaysia, and Singapore. Today, we are left way behind.

You know the facts.

Twenty years ago, the per capita income of the Filipino was 1,000 US 
dollars. Today, it's 1,100 dollars. That's a growth of only ten percent 
in twenty years. Meanwhile, Thailand's per capita income today is 
double ours; Malaysia, triple ours; and Singapore, almost twenty times 
ours.

With globalization coming, you know it is even more urgent to wake up. 
Trade barriers are falling, which means we will have to compete harder.

In the new world, entrepreneurs will be forced to invest their money 
where it is most efficient. And that is not necessarily in the 
Philippines. Even for Filipino entrepreneurs, that can be the case.

For example, a Filipino brand like Maxx candy can be manufactured in 
Bangkok-where labor, taxes, power and financing are cheaper and more 
efficient-and then exported to other ASEAN countries.

This will be a common scenario-if things do not change. Pretty soon, 
we will become a nation that buys everything and produces practically 
nothing. We will be like the prodigal son who took his father's money and 
spent it all. The difference is that we do not have a generous father 
to run back to.

But despite this, I am still very excited about the future. I will tell 
you why later.

You have been taught at the Ateneo to be "a person for others." Of 
course, that is noble: To serve your countrymen.

Question is: How?

And my answer is: Be an entrepreneur!

You may think I am just a foolish man talking mundane stuff when the 
question before him is almost philosophical. But I am being very 
thoughtful here, and if I may presume this about myself, being patriotic as 
well.

Entrepreneurship is the answer.

We need young people who will find the idea, grab the opportunity, take 
risk, and set aside comfort to set up businesses that will provide 
jobs.

But why? What are jobs?

Jobs are what allow people to feel useful and build their self-esteem. 
Jobs make people productive members of the community. Jobs make people 
feel they are worthy citizens. And jobs make a country worthy players 
in the world market.

In that order of things, it is the entrepreneurs who have the power to 
harness the creativity and talents of others to achieve a common good. 
This should leave the world a better place than it was.

Let me make it clear: Job creation is a priority for any nation to move 
forward.

For example, it is the young entrepreneurs of Malaysia, Thailand, and 
Singapore who created the dynamic businesses that have propelled their 
countries to the top. Young people like yourselves.

Meanwhile, in the Philippines, progress is slow. Very little is new. 
Hardly anything is fresh. With a few exceptions, the biggest companies 
before the war-like PLDT, Ayala, and San Miguel-are still the biggest 
companies today.

All right, being from the Ateneo, many of you probably have offers from 
these corporations already. You may even have offers from JG Summit.

I say: Great! Take these offers, work as hard as you can, learn 
everything these companies can teach-and then leave!

If you dream of creating something great, do not let a 9-to-5 job-even 
a high-paying one-lull you into a complacent, comfortable life. Let 
that high-paying job propel you toward entrepreneurship instead.

When I speak of the hardship ahead, I do not mean to be skeptical but 
realistic. Even you Ateneans, who are famous for your eloquence, you 
cannot talk your way out of this one. There is nothing to do but to deal 
with it.

I learned this lesson when, as a 13-year-old, I lost my dad. Before 
that, I was like many of you: a privileged kid. I went to Cebu's best 
school; lived in a big house; and got free entrance to the Vision, the 
largest movie house in Cebu, which my father owned.

Then my dad died, and I lost all these. My family had become poor-poor 
enough to split my family. My mother and five siblings moved to China 
where the cost of living was lower. I was placed under the care of my 
Grand Uncle Manuel Gotianuy, who put me through school. But just two 
years later, the war broke out, and even my Uncle Manuel could no longer 
see me through. I was out in the streets-literally.

Looking back, this time was one of the best times of my life. We lost 
everything, true, but so did everybody! War was the great equalizer. In 
that setting, anyone who was willing to size up the situation, use his 
wits, and work hard, could make it!

It was every man for himself, and I had to find a way to support myself 
and my family. I decided to be a market vendor.

Why?

Because it was something that I, a 15-year-old boy in short pants, 
could do.

I started by selling simple products in the palengke half an hour by 
bike from the city. I had a bicycle. I would wake up at five in the 
morning, load thread, soap and candles into my bike, and rush to the 
palengke.

I would rent a stall for one peso a day, lay out my goods on a table as 
big as this podium, and begin selling. I did that the whole day.

I sold about twenty pesos of goods every day. Today, twenty pesos will 
only allow you to send twenty text messages to your crush, but 63 years 
ago, it was enough to support my family. And it left me enough to plow 
back into my small, but growing, business.

I was the youngest vendor in the palengke, but that didn't faze me. In 
fact, I rather saw it as an opportunity. Remember, that was 63 years 
and 100 pounds ago, so I could move faster, stay under the sun more, and 
keep selling longer than everyone else.

Then, when I had enough money and more confidence, I decided to travel 
to Manila from Cebu to sell all kinds of goods like rubber tires.

Instead of my bike, I now traveled on a batel-a boat so small that on 
windless days, we would just float there. On bad days, the trip could 
take two weeks!

During one trip, our batel sank! We would have all perished in the sea 
were it not for my inventory of tires. The viajeros were happy because 
my tires saved their lives, and I was happy because the viajeros, by 
hanging on to them, saved my tires. On these long and lonely trips I had 
to entertain myself with books, like Gone With The Wind.

After the war, I had saved up 50,000 pesos. That was when you could buy 
a chicken for 20 centavos and a car for 2,000 pesos. I was 19 years 
old.

Now I had enough money to bring my family home from China. Once they 
were all here, they helped me expand our trading business to include 
imports. Remember that the war had left the Philippines with very few 
goods. So we imported whatever was needed and imported them from 
everywhere-including used clothes and textile remnants from the United States.
We were probably the first ukay-ukay dealers here.

Then, when I had gained more experience and built my reputation, I 
borrowed money from the bank and got into manufacturing. I saw that coffee 
was abundant, and Nescafe of Nestle was too expensive for a country 
still rebuilding from the war, so my company created Blend 45.

That was our first branded hit. And from there, we had enough profits 
to launch Jack and Jill.

From one market stall, we are now in nine core businesses-including 
retail, real estate, publishing, petrochemicals, textiles, banking, food 
manufacturing, Cebu Pacific Air and Sun Cellular.

When we had shown success in the smaller businesses, we were able to 
raise money in the capital markets-through IPOs and bond offerings-- and 
then get into more complex, capital-intensive enterprises. We did it 
slow, but sure.

Success doesn't happen overnight. It's the small successes achieved day 
by day that build a company. So, don't be impatient or focused on 
immediate financial rewards. I only started flying business class when I 
got too fat to fit in the economy seats.

And I even wore a used overcoat while courting my wife-it came from my 
ukay-ukay business. Thank God Elizabeth didn't mind the mothball smell 
of my overcoat or maybe she wouldn't have married me.

Save what you earn and plow it back.

And never forget your families! Your parents denied themselves many 
things to send you here. They could have traveled around the world a 
couple of times with the money they set aside for your education, and your 
social life, and your comforts.

Remember them-and thank them.

When you have families of your own, you must be home with them for at 
least one meal everyday.

I did that while I was building my company. Now, with all my six 
children married, I ask that we spend every Sunday lunch together, when 
everything under the sun is discussed.

As it is with business, so it is with family. There are no short cuts 
for building either one.

Remember, no short cuts.

Saint Ignatius of Loyola, your patron saint, and founder of this 
450-year old organization I admire, described an ideal Jesuit as one who 
"lives with one foot raised." I believe that means someone who is always 
ready to respond to opportunities.

Saint Ignatius knew that, to build a successful organization, he needed 
to recruit and educate men who were not afraid of change but were in 
fact excited by it.

In fact, the Jesuits were one of the earliest practitioners of 
globalization
. As early as the 16th century, upon reaching a foreign country, 
they compiled dictionaries in local languages like Tamil and Vietnamese 
so that they could spread their message in the local language. In a few 
centuries, they have been able to spread their mission in many 
countries through education.

The Jesuits have another quote. "Make the whole world your house" 
which means that the ideal Jesuit must be at home everywhere. By adapting 
to change, but at the same time staying true to their beliefs, the 
Society of Jesus has become the long-lasting and successful organization it 
is today and has made the world their house.

So, let live with one foot raised in facing the next big opportunity: 
globalization. Globalization can be your greatest enemy. It will be 
your downfall if you are too afraid and too weak to fight it out. But it 
can also be your biggest ally.

With the Asian Free Trade agreement and tariffs near zero, your market 
has grown from 80 million Filipinos to half a billion Southeast Asians.

Imagine what that means to you as an entrepreneur if you are able to 
find a need and fill it. And imagine, too, what that will do for the 
economy of our country!

Yes, our government may not be perfect, and our economic environment 
not ideal, but true entrepreneurs will find opportunities anywhere.

Look at the young Filipino entrepreneurs who made it. When I say 
young-and I'm 77, remember-I am talking about those in their 50s and below. 
Tony Tan of Jollibee, Ben Chan of Bench, Rolando Hortaleza of Splash, 
and Wilson Lim of Abensons.

They're the guys who weren't content with the 9-to-5 job, who were 
willing to delay their gratification and comfort, and who created something 
new, something fresh. Something Filipinos are now very proud of.

They all started small but now sell their hamburgers, T-shirts and 
cosmetics in Asia, America, and the Middle East. In doing so, these young 
Filipino entrepreneurs created jobs while doing something they were 
passionate about.

Globalization is an opportunity of a lifetime-for you. And that is why 
I want to be out there with you instead of here behind this 
podium-perhaps too old and too slow to seize the opportunities you can.

Let me leave you with one last thought.

Trade barriers have fallen. The only barriers left are the barriers you 
have in your mind.


So, Ateneans, Class of 2004, heed the call of entrepreneurship.

With a little bit of will and a little bit of imagination, you can turn 
this crisis into your patriotic moment-and truly become a person for 
others.

"Live with one foot raised and make the world your house."

To this great University, my sincerest thanks for this singular honor 
conferred on me today.

To the graduates, congratulations and Godspeed.

"Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam".

Thank you. 


Joel Mangilit

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